Information & Training. | Total Quality Management.
Introduction to TQM.Total Quality Management seeks to understand and deliver customer expectations, via continuous improvement across every function within an organization.
Improvement “always with the customer in mind”, will be actively and successfully implemented, and will be seen as part of normal daily responsibility for all staff.
Improvement will be driven in:
– Product features,
– Process efficiency,
– Service delivery,
– Staff development,
– Systems development,
– Awareness and responsibility towards the environment, etc..
The result will be the achievement and continuous enhancement of customer expectations, with consequent benefits for the organization, staff, the community and all stakeholders.
Total Quality Management is an organizational philosophy, based on the principle that consistent delivery of customer expectations, can only be achieved if each and every contributor into the customer expectation performs as required, in order to meet the needs of the customer.
In TQM the customer is everyone who is provided with a product or service, at every stage along the various contributory processes towards the final end customer. Unless all customer expectations are delivered, then an organization cannot hope to delivery to the expectations of the final end customer.
TQM entails meeting customer requirements.
Includes the internal and external customers.
Making continuous improvement part of ongoing activity for all.
The path to Total Quality Management, followed through the stages of “Inspection”, “Quality Control”, Quality Assurance” and onto “Total Quality Management”.
Quality development through Inspection (1st era).Pre-scientific Management.
At this stage were individuals with a “craft” producing items by hand. There was an individualistic approach rather than team based as is required under TQM. There was a vague idea of the concept of a specification. Inspections took place at every stage in the manufacture of a product. Low volume production – sold what could produce rather than market demand. There was a low level of technology application. There tended to be a resistance towards the introduction of new technology.
In such an environment, the concept of product and process “standardization” did not align with the concept of a “craft”.
With increased production demand … standardization became the norm and craftsmanship was replaced. Mass production brought pressure to produce consistent quality goods. An effective strategy for quality inspection was needed. Each job was broken down to the smallest manageable number of tasks. This enabled any individual who received a small amount of training to do the task. Inspection of finished products became the norm. The result was a power shift to end of line inspection staff.
The key disadvantage was that defects were not accounted for until end of line.
Economies changed due to competition pressure. In response, processes were automated and technology advances were made. A key advantage was improved process control and standardization.
Quality development through Quality Control (2nd era).Quality management by controlling the manufacturing process through managing data.
Walter Shewhart developed the concepts of Statistical Quality Control. Recognized that principles and practices of probability analysis and statistics could be applied to quality problems in manufacturing. Also recognized that any manufacturing process was variable throughout the process and time. Products could not be totally standardized but could consistently be produced within a given tolerance. Management needed to determine what variation was acceptable and what was not, this led to the promotion and development of product specifications. By managing variation in a manufacturing process, control is established over the consistency of the product.
The major difference between Inspection and Control eras was the focus:
– Inspection on Product,
– Control on Process.
Quality development through Quality Assurance (3rd era).Quality is no longer seen as a specialist concern.
Improvements in quality could not happen without commitment from employees. Management determined that quality could be ‘assured’ at the place of manufacture. The quality assurance era focuses on systems across the organization – no longer just focused on the production process. ISO 9000 states that quality assurance is all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. Quality assurance requires quality audits to provide real evidence of the integrity of the production system through an independent examination.
In summary, quality assurance is about developing in internal system that develops data over time, which demonstrates that all product produced complied to specifications and that any errors were detected and removed from the system.
Quality development through Total Quality Management (4th era).The implementation of TQM means the empowerment of staff through increased communication, education and training.
Successful implementation of TQM requires the use of specialist knowledge. Experts are used to set up quality standards, procedures, work practices, to effect the culture change of the organization. Initial investment high but is seen as paying dividends in the longer run. There is a focus on delivering employee expectations. Customer loyalty and satisfaction are seen as vital to organizational success.
TQM is a business approach to quality, empowering and educating staff to enable continuous business improvement. This enables an organization through a coordinated strategy of teamwork and innovation to satisfy customer expectations, needs and requirements.
TQM requires an emphasis on understanding variation, the importance of measurement and diagnosis, the role of the customer and the involvement of employees, at all levels of an organization, in the pursuit of continuous improvement.
Information & Training. | Total Quality Management Tools and Techniques …
- Continuous improvement utilizing Analytical Techniques.
- 5 why’s analysis
- Process Flow Diagrams/Flowcharts/Process Mapping
- Check sheets /Check Lists
- Run charts
- Scatter Diagrams/Scatter Plot
- Cause and Effect/Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams
- Identifying sources & causes of variation
- Control/Shewart Charts/DPU Charts
- Cpk and Ppk Analysis
- Pareto Analysis
- Bottleneck Analysis
- Etc. Etc.
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