Information and Training. | Total Quality Management.
TQM Process Implementation.In developing and implementing a TQM process we need to create a plan for the orderly and systematic rollout of each of the key TQM implementation stages.
Some will require senior management commitment and thought, such as the integration of TQM into the organizational strategy. By comparison, other requirements of TQM such as “fact based” decision making will be part of day to day operations.
There are three widely applied generic categories of planning – “Strategic”, “Tactical” and “Operational”.
Strategic Planning – The process of determining the long term direction and overall longer term objectives for the organization. The strategic plan will cover the long term time horizon for an organization, i.e. the strategic plan may detail where the organization sees itself in 10 years time. The impact of the strategic plan and how such impacts will be addressed will also be detailed into the organizational strategy. For example, the overall approach to new market development or the re- orientation of a current product line. Consider an automobile manufacturer, the strategic plan may detail a broad objective to re-position products such that they have fewer environmental impacts.
The implementation of a Total Quality Management philosophy, is a long term commitment by an organization. TQM is a way of operating and interfacing with customers, staff and all stakeholders, that needs to be planned and consistently developed over the long term.
The approach and objectives for TQM implementation will be addressed within the organizational strategic plan.
Tactical Planning – is focussed on the development of specific plans which will detail implementation of the strategic plans. Tactical plans tend to span the medium term time horizon. The tactical plans will look at a time horizon of say 2 – 5+ years and detail functional responsibilities, approaches to resource development, departmental restructuring dates, new product launch targets, etc..
Where an organization has a strategy for implementation of a true TQM philosophy, the tactical plans may detail for example how the organization plans to improve customer understanding and improve the anticipation of customer expectations. The tactical plans may set targets for customer satisfaction and customer integration into decision making for each of the next 5+ years.
Operational Planning has a short term narrow focus. Operational plans are very specific. Operational planning provides specific details on how the tactical plans will be implemented. The time horizon will usually span one to two years depending on the industry the organization operates within.
For example, in a manufacturing company, the operational plans will detail the product output, each week for the full year. During the summer, where staff may be taking vacations, the operational plans may detail expected levels of temporary hiring to cover full time staff taking vacation, etc..
Where an organization has a strategy for TQM implementation, the operational planning for example will detail, the number of staff with competences in the various TQM analytical tools and techniques, how many staff understand and can apply “cause and effect analysis”. The operational plan may have targets to increase SPC usage within specific departments and therefore will detail training dates on SPC, SPC rollout, etc..
Planning is a function of management. It is future orientated and provides a direction for the whole organization.
Importance of planning cannot be overemphasized:
Fail to Plan = Plan to Fail
Quality Planning is essential for an effective and manageable quality improvement process. Systematic planning is a basic requirement of TQM.
Quality Planning Process.
Every organization will adopt unique approaches to planning based on their specific capabilities, competences, history, preferences and operating environment. However, there are certain components to planning which are widely applied and seen as beneficial to overall planning effectiveness.
Organizational planning should consider some or all of the following:
– Performance of “Environmental Analysis”
– Development of a “Total Quality” Mission Statement.
– Setting an Organizational “Quality Policy” which integrates TQM ideals.
– Generation of strategic Quality Goals with TQM as a driving philosophy.
– Establishment of Quality Action plans.
– Quality Strategy Implementation.
– Monitoring and evaluation of Quality Performance.
TQM Process Planning
An analysis of customer requirements (internal and external).
– Strengths & Weaknesses – internal to the organization.
– Opportunities & Threats – external to the organization.
Total Quality Mission
Supports the overall mission of an Organization.
Short, clear concise statement – gives direction to the Organization and an indication to all stakeholders of what is important to Management.
Guidelines on what is to be completed Organization wide.
Integrating factor that quantifies the mission as guiding principles.
Strategic Quality Goals
SMART – Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic, Time based
Goals are developed based on past performance, external environment/customers, standard setting, competitor based.
Will detail scope, time-frames, responsibilities for implementing plans.
Quality Strategy Implementation
Will require active and visible management buy in.
Responsibilities will be clearly assigned.
Education and Training needs will be identified.
Participation of all will be a requirement.
Cultural – Where necessary plans will be implemented to effect changes in behavior.
Technology and Process changes will be integrated across the organization.
Day to day generation of data – the performance data generated using quality tools, provides real-time and statistical measures of quality performance.
Application of the “Quality Audit” – independent and formal review of quality related performance of the quality plan.
Continuous monitoring – to ascertain effectiveness, provide flexibility and opportunities for innovation.
The expectation will be one of “Continuous improvement”.
Information & Training. | Total Quality Management Tools and Techniques …
- Continuous improvement utilizing Analytical Techniques.
- 5 why’s analysis
- Process Flow Diagrams/Flowcharts/Process Mapping
- Check sheets /Check Lists
- Run charts
- Scatter Diagrams/Scatter Plot
- Cause and Effect/Fishbone/Ishikawa Diagrams
- Identifying sources & causes of variation
- Control/Shewart Charts/DPU Charts
- Cpk and Ppk Analysis
- Pareto Analysis
- Bottleneck Analysis
- Etc. Etc.
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